Friday, May 22, 2020

Physician Asisted Suicide - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2194 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/07/01 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Suicide Essay Did you like this example? Chapter 1: Biology Part 1: Introduction to Biology Biology is the study of living things and their natural processes. (Kara Rogers Edna R. Green Susan Heyner Joshi) Biology is divided into multiple different branches but all are interrelated through their basic principles. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Physician Asisted Suicide" essay for you Create order (Kara Rogers Edna R. Green Susan Heyner Joshi) These include branches like botany, zoology, morphology, physiology, and cell biology. (Kara Rogers Edna R. Green Susan Heyner Joshi) Botany is the study of plants while zoology is a different branch that studies animals. Morphology is the study of the structure of certain organisms while physiology is the study of the function of these organisms. (Kara Rogers Edna R. Green Susan Heyner Joshi) Cell Biology is the study of cells, this study includes the fundamental units of structure and function in living organisms. (Kara Rogers Edna R. Green Susan Heyner Joshi) Cells were first observed in the 17th century, when the compound microscope was invented by Zacharias Janssen. (Kara Rogers Edna R. Green Susan Heyner Joshi) This research relates to the research question because when a patient asks their physician for a peaceful death to end their suffering, the doctor prescribes them a drug that they must take. Two of the drugs that can be used in the process of Physician-Assisted Suicide are Pentobarbital and Secobarbital. (Pam Belluck) Pentobarbital and Secobarbital are both barbiturate drugs, however, they have some differences. Pentobarbitual is a barbituate drug that slows the activity of your brain and nervous system. This drug is used as a sedative but aslo as an emergent treatment fr seizures, but when taken in large doses can cause death amongst individuals. (What is Pentobarbital?) Secobarbital, on the other hand, is a barbiturate drug used to treat insomnia and relieve anxiety prior to surgery. (What Does a Secobarbital Overdose Look Like?) Physician-Assisted Suicide is the process in which a physician prescribes a medication to a terminally ill patient at his or her own request that the patient can take whenever they choose to end their life. ( Timothy E. Quill and Bernard Sussman) The act of the physician providing the patient with the drug to end their life is what has caused so much controversy around the world today. The controversy mainly arrose because different religions had different veiws on this act. Two main religions that had similar veiws are Christianity and Islam. These religions shared one ideal but one religion had stricter veiws and traditions that caused them to have their distinct veiw on Physician-Assisted Suicide. Chapter 2: Christianity Part 1: Standard Belief Christianity is still known today as the largest religion worldwide, containing over 2.3 billion people, and overall consisting of around 30% of Earths population. Christianity is the belief that, there is one God, eternally existent in three persons: God; the Father, God; the Son, and God; the Holy Spirit (Beliefs of Christianity). Christians believe in Jesus Christ, his virgin birth, sinless life, and his resurrection. Jesus Christ was conceived by God in the form of the Holy Spirit and his mother, the Virgin Mary. (Beliefs of Christianity) Two main holidays that Christians celebrate, include Easter and Christmas. Christmas is celebrated as the birth of Gods son, Jesus, and Easter is celebrated as the day he rose from the dead. (Beliefs of Christianity) The belief that the bible is a book of stories that contain many lessons within each story is another cultural anthropology. (John Drane) The Bible contains two sections the Old Testament and the New Testament, the difference between these two sections is that they were written at different time periods. (John Drane) The Old Testament overall is the foundation that establishes principles and prophecies that the New Testament will build upon this foundation with truths and fulfillment of these prophecies. (John Drane) Overall, Christians believe that all life is God-given and that any act that goes against this view is known as a great sin. As stated within the ten commandments, Thou shalt not kill (Bible) which is including all murders; even killing onesself. This is frowned upon within this religion, because belief is that, Gods son gave his life to relieve individuals of their sins. Therefore, all life is God-given and anyone that takes that god given life has committed a sin. Howe ver, one of the main beliefs of Christianity is that people who say aloud their sins will be forgiven if they believe that Jesus Christ is their savior and that God rose him from the dead. Part 2: Christian Views on Physician Assisted Suicide Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS) is a form of Euthanasia that has caused controversy around the world since 1997. This controversy is mainly because of the different views and beliefs of individuals within society. Physician-Assisted Suicide is known to the Christians as a form of suicide, which is mainly prohibited, mostly until an individual, experiences this within their family or themselves. Christians believe that all human life is sacred since everything that exists is believed to be created by God. God created humans with the power of free will, which includes the freedom to choose the path of darkness and turn against him as Eve did in the Garden of Eden. However, He does not force human beings to leave their sinful ways, but rather appeals to them to repent their sins, and forgives them when they do so. (D. Etienne de Villiers). Although, God takes care of the nonwealthy and ill and promises to always support them especially when someone is dying. (D. Etienne de Villiers) Overall, God, the father, the son, and the Holy Spirit rule over the world through his unconditional love. (D. Etienne de Villiers) Human life entails a certain curiosity in how God could even create all this which keeps people at a certain distance, and to overall to stay cautious when people are making decisions about their self or another individuals life because the human race will never fully understand the greatness of God. (D. Etienne de Villiers) This overall creates, a strong moral prejudice against the killing of human persons, including committing suicide or requesting medically assisted suicide or euthanasia. (D. Etienne de Villiers). This does not mean that the moral prejufice against killing any human including ones self cannot be overridden by the subconscious. Although, it does mean that some thoughts have a greater amount of, moral weight than the strong moral prejudice against the killing of a human person including oneself.(D. Etienne de Villiers) Many people within this religion reject the idea of Physician-Assisted Suicide or voluntary euthanasia because murder is forbidden by the Sixth of the Ten Commandments. The main reason murder is prohibited is because it is the act of depriving an individual of what the rest of their life has to offer. But when an individual is already being deprived of their life due to having a terminal illness and wants to fasten the process, there is a belief in some individuals which changes the situation. Christians believe that God should determine the life of an individual and that if an individual truly believes this they also believe that it is wrong to use medicinal prac tices to extend life or shorten it because it can only be determined by God. (D. Etienne de Villiers) In 2016, Corinne Johns-Treat was 62 years old and had been suffering from stage IV cancer since she was 58 years old. Corinne was a Christian and believed throughout the process that God had a plan for what she should do and where she will end up.(Corinne Johns-Treat) Around 2015, her cancer had spread throughout her brain, chest, and neck. Even after, chemo, radiation, and resection of the tumor in her brain, it returned less than a year later. (Corinne Johns-Treat) During the fight through cancer; she stated: Right now, my faith is probably stronger than its ever been because Ive felt Gods presence through this experience. (Corinne Johns-Treat) Corinne was a Christian and never actually wanted to die, she even said that If I wanted to end my life, I could have declined surgery in 2012. Or refused the chemo and radiation treatments in 2015. (Corinne Johns-Treat) Even though she wanted to live she also did not want her family to watch her suffer throughout her final days. Corinnes certain case as a Christian woman she felt that she was not going against God; but that God had given her this alternative and an overall easy way to go. (Corinne Johns-Treat) So in conclusion, Christians believe that God gave life and individuals should not take it away or anyone elses away because it is stated in the 6th commandment. But also, the belief that God put people on this earth to have free will which means that they are able to go against him and as long as they repent sins and know he is their savior he will forgive them. This relates to the research question because this is one of the relgions that have views on Physician Assisted suicide for terminally ill patients. Chapter 3: Islam Part 1: Standard Belief Islam is the second largest religion in the world coming after Christianity. This is a monotheistic religion and religious practice that developed in the Middle East in the 7th century. (Patheos) Islam was founded on the teachings of the Prophet, Muhammad, as an expression of surrender to the will of the all-knowing god Allah. (Patheos) There are over 1.8 billion people that practice this religion worldwide. Islam is a religion that has very strict views that are highly important to the individuals that practice this religion. (Islamic Beliefs) Within this religion, individuals, in order to be considered as Muslim, the individual must be able to recite a statement of faith known as the Shahada (Islamic Beliefs). This statement of faith states that There is no God but God, and Muhammad is his Prophet (Islamic Beliefs). Individuals who practice this Islamic religion are known as Muslims and believe in one all-knowing god who they call Allah. (Islamic Beliefs) This is the Muslim name for God because it is Arabic for The (al) God (lah). (Islamic Beliefs) Overall, Muslims believe that Muhammad was Allahs chief servant and messenger and that Allah is the all-powerful Creator of a perfect, ordered universe (Islamic Beliefs). Muslims and followers of Islamic religion believe that nothing can happen without Allahs permission but overall humans have free will. (Islam) There are a few difference amongst the religions that worship a God, such as Christians and Catholics for example, who practice their religions in churches but Muslims practice their religions in Mosques. (Islam) Every religion not only has places they practice their religion but also a holy text that they follow during worship. Islam uses the Quran as the holy text that they use when practicing their religion. (Islam) Followers of this religion practicing this religion by attending worship in a mosque, praying to Allah, and reciting the Quran. (Islam) There are overall three main beliefs within this religion. The first is the belief that Allah is The ONLY Creator, Provider, and The Commander, the second is that Allah is the ONLY God who should be worshipped, and the last basic belief is that Allah Is Perfect and His Names and Attributes are P erfect according to what Allah tells us about Himself in the Quran. (Islam Beliefs and Practices) In the sight of the Muslim God, Allah, all people are created equal and there is no human superior over another for any reason except worthiness. (Islam Beliefs and Practices) Within this religion, Muslims are not allowed to discriminate upon an individual but must respect the dignity of all people no matter what race or religion. (Islam Beliefs and Practices) Part 2: How Beliefs relates to Euthanasia Under the supervision of Allah the individuals worshiping him cannot be judged or judge others on characteristics. Belief is that these individuals had no choice over their characteristics such as color, gender, size, and race. (Islam Beliefs and Practices) Islam as a whole teaches individuals of this religion that diversity amongst humans is nothing more than a sign of the powerfulness of Allah and the beauty of his creation. (Islam Beliefs and Practices) Different from other religions, Islam has no priests or holy men but only people who are knowledgeable of this religious practice and religion as a whole. (Islam Beliefs and Practices) These knowledgeable people have only one job and that is to truthfully teach others about Allah. (Islam Beliefs and Practices) Euthanasia is the act in which a physician directly gives a medication to a patient to end their lives, whereas Physician-Assisted Suicide is the act in which the physician just provides the patient with the materials to end their own life. Within the research question the other religions views on Physician Assisted Suicide for terminally ill patients is Islam. In Islam, Muslims are against both of these acts of death. (Religions Islam: Euthanasia, assisted dying, medical ethics and suicide) The individuals that practice this religion believe that all human life is sacred because it is given by Allah and that no one but Allah can decide when it was an individual time to die. (Religions Islam: Euthanasia, assisted dying, medical ethics and suicide)

Friday, May 8, 2020

Biography of Muhammad Essay - 1585 Words

A desert peninsula in 6th century was the cross roads of the world, the bridge between Europe, Asia and Africa. Arabia was a vacant wasteland of desert, rarely seeing any life besides that of the trade caravans. City states dominated the political life and the only form of centralized government was in chaos. This was Arabia in the 6th century, this even though Christian was to become the staging ground for the growth of the 2nd largest religion that exists today. This is where the Prophet Muhammad was born in the city of Mecca. In 570 Muhammad was born, son of Abdullah who had died just a few short weeks before. Nobody knew that in 53 years a journey was to start that would change the world for thousands of year. After being†¦show more content†¦Upon his return to Mecca Khadijah was very, very pleased with the large amount of money that had been taken in and offered him her hand in marriage and he began his work for the poor (Hamidullah, par. 13). In the city of Mecca the leaders decided to help the well being of the poor by making an organization called Hilf-al-Fudul (Hamidullah, par. 13). Muhammad became very involved in this organization in Mecca. The world at this point was very Christian and Muhammad worked closely with many charities to help the poor. The majority of people on Arabia were either Christian or Jewish, Muhammad began getting revelations at the age of 40 years old and believed that he saw and angel in The Mountain of Light a cave where he, and his father before him, would go to fast for the month of Ramadan (Pickthall, par. 6). Well in the cave he heard a voice forcefully tell him to read, this is what he read; Read: In the name of thy Lord who createth. Createth man from a clot. Read: And it is thy Lord the Most Bountiful Who teacheth by the pen, Teacheth man that which he knew not. (Pickthall, par. 5) When he left the cave he say an angle who said to him O Muhammad! Thou art Allahs messenger, and I am Jibril (Gabriel). Muhammad consulted his wifes uncle who was a scholar in the scriptures. Her uncleShow MoreRelatedMuhammad, A Biography Of Prophet Essay958 Words   |  4 PagesMuhammad, A Biography Of Prophet A short history about the worlds fastest growing religion and of the man, who seeded the plant of Islam himselfRead MoreBiography: Muhammad Ali836 Words   |  4 PagesCassius Marcellus Clay, Jr. also known as Muhammad Ali is a famous and a very talented boxer. He was born on January 17, 1942 in Louisville, Kentucky. Cassiu s, named after his father, grew up in a good home. He had both parents and was the older of two brothers. His father painted billboard and signs for a living while his mother was a stay at home mom. He was first gained interest in boxing by Louisville police officer and boxing coach Joe E. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Benefits of Running Free Essays

Running is a great form of exercise that most people should do because it is a great way to keep fit, it is not boring and it is inexpensive. Running is one of the top sports to stay in shape. It is healthy and people burn many calories and it helps with weight loss. We will write a custom essay sample on Benefits of Running or any similar topic only for you Order Now Running is also affordable. You do not need expensive equipment and it has no gym fees. Besides running can be really fun, they can ask a friend to join them and listen to music while exercising. Many people do not realize the benefits of running. Running reduces the risk of heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure among many other things. Running also helps with weight loss, building leg muscle, and improves the mental well-being and boost the confidence of any person. Also studies have shown that people who run on a regular basis tend to live longer than those who do not. If they want to live longer and healthier lives, running is a great way to do so. In addition, running can be really fun. You just have to be a little creative and add changes to the routine. You can ask a couple of friends to join you and make it fun. If you are an independent person then you can run while listening to your favorite music. Likewise, you can also try a different route or try running a different course every day. Pick your city’s favorite site and plan a course that runs towards or through it. Another benefit of running is that ii is inexpensive. You do not have to belong to a gym or own some expensive equipment to improve your health. Running can be easy and cheap. All you need is a very moderate amount of sport clothing to do it. The most they are going to spend on is a decent pair of running shoes. In conclusion running is an ideal way to get needed exercise. You can get fit and stay healthy. Running is not boring if you try to be a little creative. Running is inexpensive, they do not need expensive equipment, they just need some running shoes, and they are ready to go. They can also get some fresh air and enjoy being outside. References * www. MedicalNewsToday. com * www. AmericanCouncilonExercise. com * www. MayoClinic. com * www. Runningtimes. com How to cite Benefits of Running, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

The Mexican Drugs Cartels

Mexico City is well known for drug trafficking which took place smoothly without any interference. The emergence of the Mexican drug cartels was initiated by Miguel à ngel Fà ©lix Gallardo, who was a Judicial Federal Police agent in Mexico in the 1980s.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Mexican Drugs Cartels specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The drug trafficking was easily achieved because he developed a well-established infrastructure that connected the drug traffickers in Columbia with those in Mexico (Grayson 2010). The development of the Mexican Drug Cartel The Mexican Drug Cartel developed and spread rapidly uninterrupted because it enjoyed protection by the Mexican government. This formed the basis for even more powerful and dangerous groupings, which resulted in increased crime activities. In addition, these drug trafficking activities increased at a time when there were increased economic assimilation s that paved way for trading with the United States (Stares, 1996). However, there have been tremendous political changes over the past few years like the decentralization of the Mexican political system, which disintegrated these powerful cartels. The well-linked network between the Mexican drug traffickers and the Transnational Organized Criminals was disrupted leading to fierce competition to earn a good share of the lucrative illegal business. Moreover, the 1980s marked an important turning point for the Mexican Drug Traffickers, thanks to the single ruling party called the ‘Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)’, which shunned criminal activities. However, bearing in mind that this ruling party was highly hierarchical and centralized, it served as a loophole for corruption and impunity as long as there were good payoff to those in power. For instance, the ‘Federal Security Directorate (DFS)’, which ensured domestic security benefited mutually from co rrupt dealings with the drug traffickers by receiving huge payoffs while the cartel owners received tight security. In the 1970s and 1980s, the Mexican drug traffickers earned a substantial income from illegal cocaine trading, which made Mexico be branded as the ‘drug trafficking hub’ into the United States. Drug trafficking has continued to spread rapidly over the years in Mexico with the drug traffickers being independent individuals, drug cartels or groups, and even larger drug networks.Advertising Looking for essay on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, by the late 1990s, there had developed about four other drug trafficking cartels, which competed fiercely to gain control of the market that led to division and fights among the drug traffickers. Apparently, Mexican drug cartels have dominated the illegal drug trading in the United States, as there is increased co-operation with the prisoners a nd street peddlers in the United States; moreover, drug trafficking has spread rapidly into other nations, to an extent that it has become a global issue (Grayson, 2010). Disagreements among drugs cartels in Mexico There was increased competition, which ended in conflicts among the major players in the market; this was as result of development of political pluralism, and partly because of reorganization of Mexico’s police force. This created more complex organizations that could not be easily regulated (Grayson, 2010). However, the Mexican government has always sought control measures in an effort to fight illegal drug trading but unfortunately has failed due to corruption. As a result of these disagreements, there has arisen a tough war between the Mexican government and the cartel leaders and among the rival cartels as they fight for dominance in the market. In the recent years, the Mexican government has taken disciplinary measures to all who plead guilty over such offence s though it has not borne much fruits. Instead, more powerful and violent drug cartels have evolved and fight for control of the pathways used for trafficking of the drugs in the United States (Grayson, 2010). Examples of the illegal drugs traded Mexico’s drug cartels are known to control nearly 70 percent of the total traded illegal drugs in the United States. Among the major drugs traded include, cannabis sativa and methamphetamine as well as heroin. Additionally, it is estimated that 90 percent of the total cocaine supplied to the United States come from Mexico having been produced in Columbia. This is estimated to earn them approximately $13.6 billion to $48.4 billion on yearly basis. Recent research findings reveal that the Mexican economy would drop considerably by 63 percent should drug trading be cleared completely (Randal, 2009).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Mexican Drugs Cartels specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Current cartels Apparently, there are two major alliances of drug dealers in operation since February 2010; one composed of Tijuana cartel, Los Zetas, Juarez cartel and Beltrà ¡n-Leyva Cartel‎‎, and the other one made of Sinoloa cartel, Gulf and La Familia cartel (Randal, 2009). Transnational organized crime (TOC) It is also referred to as transnational crime, which is planned offense, practiced across national borders between states. Transnational organized crime is dreaded most because of its deleterious effect on national security affecting social, economic, and political development of the society. Some of the planned offences include human trafficking, trafficking of firearms, drugs trafficking, money laundering, trafficking of migrants where the most prevalent one is peddling of drugs which attracts huge profits. There is a dire need for the governments to cooperate with UNODC in finding a solution to the impending problem as well as preven t further development of these offences (Fukumi, 2008). The increased involvement in trade between nations because of modernization and globalization has paved way for more involvement in criminal activities. However, the ancient form of governance has ceased, replacing it with loose networks that are now dominant in the drugs trafficking. It has been observed that these organized crime â€Å"groups involved in drug trafficking are commonly engaged in smuggling of other illegal goods† (Stares, 1996). Indeed, the fight against these well-established or organized gangs is an uphill task since these groups are deeply entrenched and are hard to dislodge. Some of the recommendations to curb their operations may include use of electronic gadgets to fast track the criminals, carrying out impromptu inspections of people and vehicles, enacting tighter rules of disclosing criminal activities (Seelke, 2010). The effect after government interference This took effect when Mexican Presiden t Felipe Calderon launched war against drugs in an effort to combat the violent crimes that were committed by the drug traffickers. Both the military forces and the police came together to cut back the brutal murders as security was an issue all over Mexico. However, this has not borne much success as corruption of the government officers has led to the criminals being set free (Randal, 2009).Advertising Looking for essay on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The current status of the state is that of an incompetent government which has no power over these criminals; indeed, the state is now in panic as brutal blood shedding and violence are the norm of the day as more powerful, wealthier and influential gangs of drugs have come up to bribe the police force leading to escalation of crime. However, the government has not given up; it is determined to recruit more honest and reliable police and military forces to execute justice and good governance. The government is also strategizing on setting up federal police troops who would campaign against drugs as a way of reforming the corrupt groups. The government has incurred a lot of expenses in quest for security and peace in Mexico. The war on drugs has so far adversely affected the economy of Mexico as the government tries to curb the impending crimes (Rakrf, 2008). In addition, the Mexican government faces a great challenge of gaining confidence in the state as drug trafficking is so much entrenched in the peoples’ daily life as it brings much more food on the table than any other source of income. Conclusion It is quite clear that the fight against these forms of organized crimes will never end as long as the enacted laws have been breached or are not well established. The fight against its further penetration into the less prevalent areas has not been very successful. This may partly be attributed to lack of cooperation among states to prevent consumption of hard drugs, and partly because of corruption among government officials (Seelke, 2010). More stringent laws should be enforced on the criminals and drug policies should be re-examined to ensure there is no loophole left for drug traffickers to operate. On the other hand, the government should strive to provide the necessary machinery that is lacking in the society, which makes them result to crimes, as well as try to eliminate unemployment, under-development, poverty, over-population, tribalism, environm ental deprivation and illiteracy (Stares, 1996). References Fukumi, S. (2008). Cocaine trafficking in Latin America: EU and US policy responses. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. Grayson, G. (2010). Mexico: narco-violence and a failed state? Jersey: Transaction Publishers. Randal, C. A. (2009). Mexican Drug Cartel Violence Spills Over, Alarming U.S. The New York Times. Web. Rakrf, J. (2008). Calderon defends war on cartels.  Web. Seelke, C. R. (2010). Latin America and the Caribbean: Illicit Drug Trafficking and U. S. Counterdrug Programs. NY: DIANE Publishing. Stares, P. B. (1996). Global habit: the drug problem in a borderless world. Washington DC: Brookings Institution Press. This essay on The Mexican Drugs Cartels was written and submitted by user Casen Barber to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Capital Cities of Every Independent Country

Capital Cities of Every Independent Country There are 195 nations officially recognized as independent countries in the world, each with its own capital city. A significant number of countries have multiple capital cities. Where that occurs, the additional capital cities are listed as well. Is Taiwan a Country? The United Nations list of nations doesnt include Taiwan as separate but as a part of China: 193 U.N. member nations and two nonvoting observer  states, the Vatican City and Palestine. Only 17 nations recognize Taiwan as an independent nation, nine of which are in Latin America; in August 2018 El Salvador severed ties with Taiwan in favor of establishing relations with China, the third country to do so in just over a year. The Countries of the World and their Capitals Check out this alphabetical list of every independent nation and its capital (Taiwan is also included): Afghanistan: KabulAlbania: TiranaAlgeria: AlgiersAndorra: Andorra la VellaAngola: LuandaAntigua and Barbuda: Saint JohnsArgentina: Buenos AiresArmenia: YerevanAustralia: CanberraAustria: ViennaAzerbaijan: BakuThe Bahamas: NassauBahrain: ManamaBangladesh: DhakaBarbados: BridgetownBelarus: MinskBelgium: BrusselsBelize: BelmopanBenin: Porto-NovoBhutan: ThimphuBolivia: La Paz (administrative); Sucre (judicial)Bosnia and Herzegovina: SarajevoBotswana: GaboroneBrazil: BrasiliaBrunei: Bandar Seri BegawanBulgaria: SofiaBurkina Faso: OuagadougouBurundi: Gitega (changed from Bujumbura in December 2018)Cambodia: Phnom PenhCameroon: YaoundeCanada: OttawaCape Verde: PraiaCentral African Republic: BanguiChad: NDjamenaChile: SantiagoChina: BeijingColombia: BogotaComoros: MoroniCongo, Republic of the: BrazzavilleCongo, Democratic Republic of the: KinshasaCosta Rica: San JoseCote dIvoire: Yamoussoukro (official); Abidjan (de facto)Croatia: ZagrebCuba: HavanaCyprus: NicosiaCzech Republic: PragueDenmar k: Copenhagen Djibouti: DjiboutiDominica: RoseauDominican Republic: Santo DomingoEast Timor (Timor-Leste): DiliEcuador: QuitoEgypt: CairoEl Salvador: San SalvadorEquatorial Guinea: MalaboEritrea: AsmaraEstonia: TallinnEthiopia: Addis AbabaFiji: SuvaFinland: HelsinkiFrance: ParisGabon: LibrevilleThe Gambia: BanjulGeorgia: TbilisiGermany: BerlinGhana: AccraGreece: AthensGrenada: Saint GeorgesGuatemala: Guatemala CityGuinea: ConakryGuinea-Bissau: BissauGuyana: GeorgetownHaiti: Port-au-PrinceHonduras: TegucigalpaHungary: BudapestIceland: ReykjavikIndia: New DelhiIndonesia: JakartaIran: TehranIraq: BaghdadIreland: DublinIsrael: Jerusalem*Italy: RomeJamaica: KingstonJapan: TokyoJordan: AmmanKazakhstan: AstanaKenya: NairobiKiribati: Tarawa AtollKorea, North: PyongyangKorea, South: SeoulKosovo: PristinaKuwait: Kuwait CityKyrgyzstan: BishkekLaos: VientianeLatvia: RigaLebanon: BeirutLesotho: MaseruLiberia: MonroviaLibya: TripoliLiechtenstein: VaduzLithuania: VilniusLuxembourg: LuxembourgMacedonia: SkopjeMad agascar: Antananarivo Malawi: LilongweMalaysia: Kuala LumpurMaldives: MaleMali: BamakoMalta: VallettaMarshall Islands: MajuroMauritania: NouakchottMauritius: Port LouisMexico: Mexico CityMicronesia, Federated States of: PalikirMoldova: ChisinauMonaco: MonacoMongolia: UlaanbaatarMontenegro: PodgoricaMorocco: RabatMozambique: MaputoMyanmar (Burma): Rangoon (Yangon); Naypyidaw or Nay Pyi Taw (administrative)Namibia: WindhoekNauru: no official capital; government offices in Yaren DistrictNepal: KathmanduNetherlands: Amsterdam; The Hague (seat of government)New Zealand: WellingtonNicaragua: ManaguaNiger: NiameyNigeria: AbujaNorway: OsloOman: MuscatPakistan: IslamabadPalau: MelekeokPanama: Panama CityPapua New Guinea: Port MoresbyParaguay: AsuncionPeru: LimaPhilippines: ManilaPoland: WarsawPortugal: LisbonQatar: DohaRomania: BucharestRussia: MoscowRwanda: KigaliSaint Kitts and Nevis: BasseterreSaint Lucia: CastriesSaint Vincent and the Grenadines: KingstownSamoa: ApiaSan Marino: San MarinoSao Tome and Principe: Sao Tome Saudi Arabia: RiyadhSenegal: DakarSerbia: BelgradeSeychelles: VictoriaSierra Leone: FreetownSingapore: SingaporeSlovakia: BratislavaSlovenia: LjubljanaSolomon Islands: HoniaraSomalia: MogadishuSouth Africa: Pretoria (administrative); Cape Town (legislative); Bloemfontein (judiciary)South Sudan: Juba  Spain: MadridSri Lanka: Colombo; Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (legislative)Sudan: KhartoumSuriname: ParamariboSwaziland: MbabaneSweden: StockholmSwitzerland: BernSyria: DamascusTaiwan: TaipeiTajikistan: DushanbeTanzania: Dar es Salaam; Dodoma (legislative)Thailand: BangkokTogo: LomeTonga: NukualofaTrinidad and Tobago: Port-of-SpainTunisia: TunisTurkey: AnkaraTurkmenistan: AshgabatTuvalu: Vaiaku village, Funafuti provinceUganda: KampalaUkraine: KyivUnited Arab Emirates: Abu DhabiUnited Kingdom: LondonUnited States of America: Washington, D.C.Uruguay: MontevideoUzbekistan: TashkentVanuatu: Port-VilaVatican City (Holy See): Vatican CityVenezuela: CaracasVietnam: HanoiYemen: SanaaZambia: Lusa kaZimbabwe: Harare An important fact to note is that the executive, judicial, and legislative branches of the State of Israel are all located in Jerusalem, making it the capital; nonetheless, almost all countries maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv. President Donald Trump moved the U.S. embassy to Jerusalem in 2018 and others may follow, possibly just to curry favor with the United States for aid in their own crises, Eric Olson told the Washington Post. While the listing above is an authoritative listing of the independent countries of the world, it is important to note that there are also more than 60  territories, colonies, and dependencies of independent countries, which often have their own capital cities as well.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Say No to Your Darlings

Say No to Your Darlings Say No to Your Darlings Say No to Your Darlings By Michael Veteran writers often advise aspiring writers to â€Å"kill your darlings.† Grisly, isnt it, but they all say it. William Faulkner wrote, â€Å"In writing, you must kill all your darlings.† Stephen King wrote, â€Å"kill your darlings, kill your darlings, even when it breaks your egocentric little scribbler’s heart, kill your darlings.† Notice that King said kill three times, but then, we are talking about Stephen King. According to Slates culture editor Forrest Wickman, this advice was originally given by more than a century ago by Cornish writer Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch (his pen name was Q). In On the Art of Writing: Lectures Delivered in the University of Cambridge, 1913–1914, Sir Arthur Q advised: If you here require a practical rule of me, I will present you with this: ‘Whenever you feel an impulse to perpetrate a piece of exceptionally fine writing, obey it- whole-heartedly- and delete it before sending your manuscript to press. Murder your darlings. Observe that Sir Q didnt say murder your whole manuscript. And he didnt tell us to ignore your darlings either. No, he encourages us to put our darlings whole-heartedly onto paper. Just dont send that piece of paper to the publisher. And how did our friend Q define darlings? As a piece of exceptionally fine writing, one that happens to have been written by yourself. A darling is not a wickedly appropriate plot twist or a subtle yet deep character insight. No, it is merely a purported example of exceptionally fine writing. Does it further the story or reveal character or do any of the things that truly fine writing does? Erm, no comment. My takeaway on this: if something helps your reader, dont murder it. If it only make it easier to pat yourself on the back, lose it. Sir Q didnt really say to kill your darlings. He said okay, he said murder your darlings. No way am I going to write one thousand words encouraging you to murder a loved one. So let me adjust the analogy. Nobody wants to think about losing a beloved child. We all want to keep our darlings. But just because we love our darlings doesnt mean that right here is the right place for them. Cute as a three-year-old daughter is, I can think of a lot of places in the house that she doesnt need to be, and a lot of things she doesnt need to be doing. We would never get rid of her, but often we need to say no to her. Her cuteness makes it hard to say no, but not less necessary. Im using the singular feminine when I talk about darlings, calling her she, because losing a favorite character or passage or idea can feel giving up a favorite daughter. Deliberately giving her up, by your own choice, seems even worse. Maybe you feel like youre committing child abandonment. Except it isnt really like that. Once your book goes to press, your readers will never miss your darling. They will never know she is missing. Since she didnt really belong in your book, you will never miss her there. Yes, she seems so precious. But having your writing called precious is not usually a compliment. But what if your darling feels real to you, already a three-dimensional character in your mind or deserving to become one? What if you cant give her up? Fortunately, saying no to your darling this time doesnt mean you cant say yes to her later. Just cut and paste the passage into another file on your computer. Yes, you must remove your darling from where she doesnt belong, but you dont have to delete your darling entirely. Maybe she will fit beautifully in another story. She may become the centerpiece, the key to your new masterpiece. By the way, that other file doesnt need to be reserved only for deceased darlings. You should keep an idea file anyway, for all those ideas which you already know they dont fit into your current project. I like to review my idea files sometimes even when Im not particularly working on anything. It makes me feel more brilliant. I have to recognize, however, that not all my darlings are simply misplaced beauties. Maybe that character isnt as three-dimensional as I believed. Maybe Im deceived about the truthfulness of that plot line. Maybe life isnt really like that. Maybe my affection is misplaced. Regardless, once youve done away with your darling, immediately fill in the hole she left. Read over the part just before the cut, and keep on going and writing from there. How do you recognize a darling that needs to be removed? And where do you find the courage to remove her? Well, we often find courage and wisdom in other people. A writer needs other people alpha readers, beta readers, or a writing group. You need these intelligent, literate people to look into your story, to show you how well they appreciate the good parts (demonstrating their great insight), and to share with you how confused or apathetic they felt when they read the other parts. Inconceivable, isnt it, that so many intelligent readers dont appreciate something that is so obviously brilliant. If only one reader has trouble with it, maybe thats his problem. If many readers have trouble with it, maybe theres your problem. And you need to take care of it. Essentially, your darlings are the beloved parts of your work that dont advance your work. And you need others to help you see the truth, just some parents are incapable of seeing that their three-year-old is spoiled until others point it out. Saying no to your darlings will make you stronger. Suffering tends to do that sort of thing. Accepting another point of view will increase your empathy. Youre giving up something you love out of deference to others. Doing so will make you less selfish and a better writer. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Freelance Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Has vs. HadYay, Hooray, Woo-hoo and Other Acclamations10 Varieties of Syntax to Improve Your Writing

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Job reward Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Job reward - Essay Example Research suggests that both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are necessary in motivating employees. Traditionally, extrinsic rewards that are derived not from the work itself were considered sufficient. These include salaries, bonuses, perks, benefits, commissions and cash rewards (Thomas). The tall hierarchies and close supervision allowed managers to keep track of whether the policies are being followed and could either grant or hold back these rewards based on performance. However, workers today prefer self-management rather than close supervision and get motivated from being empowered which gives them a sense of belonging to the organization (Thomas). Hence, intrinsic rewards are largely based on the satisfaction that workers derive from the task at hand (Thomas). Therefore, intrinsic rewards entail greater commitment and initiative on the part of workers who take pride in doing their work. Although the importance of extrinsic rewards is diminishing, they are can by no means be ne glected. As per Maslow’s theory of hierarchy, lower order needs such as pay and job security must first be satisfied before workers become motivated by higher order needs such as belonging, self-esteem and self-actualization. Therefore, both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards must be considered in employees’ job rewards package. Rummassah’s major problem in recent years is its high employee turnover and low level of employee morale that has often been reflected in bad attitude towards customers and job switching to competitors’ companies. Greater insight revealed that Rummassah was paying too little monetary incentives to its best performers and too much to their inefficient workers which led to the latter’s disillusionment. Most rewards were not customer focused as a result of which even poor performers were getting the same monetary incentives as good performers. Furthermore, rewards focused on length of service or seniority tends to turn compensati on into entitlement. Furthermore, insights revealed that part-time employees were not been provided with stock options which made them switch to other jobs, thereby increasing costs for the company. Employees also complained about monotonous work and lack of social gatherings to break the high pressure and stress during peak periods. Considering that almost 40% of the workforce was expatriates, they could not understand local Arabic language which made them fearful of dealing with customers. Finally, there were complains of long waiting times and lack of coordination amongst the cafe staff by disgruntled customers. In view of the above problems, the organization must implement a rewards program that addresses the above issues. Performance in this case shall be based on the achievement of tasks in the job description as well as relations with other employees. Firstly, good performers shall be recognized through their picture being put up on the company’s notice board under the caption â€Å"Star of the month†. The best performer will receive a bonus of AED 300. Furthermore, the name of this employee shall be featured on the company’s website. However, research shows that simply praising the employee’s work through thank you notes has more value than employee of the month awards (Bersin, 2012). Keeping